What is the difference between white and red wine production?

wine production

What is the difference between white and red wine production?


What types of wines do you know? Even a person completely far from wine, and who has never attended wine tastings, has not visited wineries, will tell you that wine, of course, can be red and white. What is the difference? It would seem simple: red wine is made from red grapes, white – from white. This is true in most cases. There are, however, a couple of exceptions and clarifications, but for now, I will not confuse you.

So, red grapes for red wine, white for white. Learned! But is that all? Not really. Grapes are, of course, the basis of wine, but there are also several differences in the white and red wine production process.

To make it clear, let’s take a brief look at the main stages of winemaking (we take a very generalized and simplified case, of course, the process may vary depending on the region and the desire of the winemaker, but to understand how white and red wine production occurs, this scheme is enough):

The beginning of the wine making

·     Harvest. Everything is clear here. White grapes are usually harvested before red. Grapes are harvested (manually or using special machines) and delivered to the winery.

·       Destemming and crushing

of grape berries. The stems are separated from the berries with the help of special equipment. Thank God, it exists today, which significantly accelerated and simplified the winemaking process. The berries are slightly crushed.

White Wine Production - Infographic



White Wine Production

These initial processes are the same for both white and red wine production. But then the difference comes.

  • To produce white wine, the berries are immediately pressed. This way, the juice is extracted and solid materials (skin, seeds) are removed.

  • Next, the resulting liquid is cooled so that the leaked small solid particles settle, they are removed and the less-purified juice is fermented.

  • The fermentation process usually takes place in large containers made of stainless steel, concrete or wood. For fermentation, we need yeasts. They can be natural, which are already on the skin of grapes, and can be commercial, that is, produced in the laboratory. Fermentation lasts several days. During this time, yeast transforms sugar from grapes into alcohol, releasing carbon dioxide and heat.

Red Wine Production - Infographic


Red Wine Production

For red wine, things are a bit different. Berries separated from the stems are placed in a large container. For the production of white wine we get rid of the skin as soon as possible, then for the production of red – we still need skins.

  • Fermentation starts. And in parallel there is a process of maceration. Maceration is one of the main differences between the white and red wine production. Maceration is a process during which the skin is in contact with grape juice (the berries are partially crushed, so we already have both solid materials and liquid in the container) to extract color, aromas, tannins and other components. The fact is that most red grapes have a transparent pulp, and the components responsible for color are in the skin. Thus, without maceration, we would not be able to produce a truly red colored wine. The duration of maceration for red wine varies from a few days to several weeks, depending on the final result that the winemaker wants to get.

  • After fermentation and maceration (parallel processes in one tank) we transfer all the material to the press. After we separate the liquid material from the solid. We no longer need the skin and seeds.

From Aging to Bottling

The subsequent steps differ only in the details for the white and red wine production.

·   After the fermentation the wine is aged for some time. It can be large containers made of concrete or stainless steel, but also a small volume wooden barrels. Depending on the quality of the wine and its potential for aging, and of the financial potential of the winery, of course. White wines usually are aged less. But it all depends, there is no single rule.

·   After the aging, the wine is filtered, fined and voila! It is ready for bottling.

I hope that now the process of white and red wine production has become a little clearer for you. And you can tell your friends what’s the difference between red and white wine. But there was one more question. Of course! How to be with a rose wine? Read the next post about it! Subscribe to Facebook and Instagram pages not to miss more useful information. See you soon!

Red wine tasting: the most popular varieties

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Red wine tasting: the most popular varieties

Nowadays there are about 10,000 grape varieties worldwide. Of course, it is impossible to know them all. But if you decide to understand the wine at least a little bit, go for a red wine tasting, choose a drink for a holiday or a picnic, feel like an expert on a trip to the wine region – it’s nice to know at least the basic varieties.

The number of grape varieties is not calculable. Since more and more new ones are constantly being developed. In total there are about 10 to 20 thousand grape varieties now.

Cabernet Sauvignon

This variety occupies the largest vineyard area on our planet. Cabernet Sauvignon is great for aging. The homeland of this variety is Bordeaux, one of the most famous wine regions in the world. But in Bordeaux, you are unlikely to find wine only from Cabernet Sauvignon. Usually, local winemakers produce blend here, that is, they use several grape varieties. In Bordeaux, most often it is Cabernet Sauvignon, its relative Cabernet Franc and the equally famous Merlot. 

Cabernet Sauvignon always brings astringency, body, density to wine. To soften it, they usually use Merlot or Cabernet Franc. The wines from Cabernet Sauvignon are always rich, well-colored, because this grape has a thick skin. The characteristic aromas for this variety will be dark berries (black currant, blackberry), paprika, licorice, cedar.


The homeland of this variety is also the French region of Bordeaux, where it is used in the classic Bordeaux blend. Merlot brings a rich color, harmonious body. In the aroma, you recognize it by the notes of dominant red berries (raspberries, red currants, cherries), plums, violets. But do not be surprised if you find some fried and smoky aromas, as well as the smells of pepper and mushrooms in wines with Merlot content. This variety acquires such notes with the aging, especially in its classic Bordeaux region. Merlot is not as tart as Cabernet Sauvignon, so these varieties are often used together. They are like best friends: a little different, but perfectly complement each other. 

This variety is also very common throughout the world, especially a lot of its plantings in Bordeaux (both right and left banks), Languedoc (France), California (USA), Chile, Australia, South Africa. But you can also find excellent wines from Merlot in countries such as New Zealand, Italy, Hungary, Bulgaria, China.

Pinot Noir

The most sophisticated and whimsical variety. Like a rose from the Little Prince: delicate, vulnerable, but with character, can manifest its “spikes” if necessary. Pinot Noir is a red variety of Burgundy, the second very famous and prestigious wine region of France. For many people, wines from this variety are the most beloved. They are more difficult to understand, they are lighter, but also more refined than Bordeaux. Pinot Noir is also one of the red grapes for the production of champagne (they also use the red Meunier and the white Chardonnay). 

The variety is whimsical to weather conditions, likes a cooler climate.  Therefore it is less common than Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot. Most often used in single variety wines (wines from the same grape variety). You will find excellent examples of Pinot Noir from Burgundy (France), the Loire Valley (France), California (USA), Australia, Germany, Italy and Switzerland, as well as even Japan and New Zealand.


Syrah (aka Shiraz)

The homeland of this variety is rather unknown. Some are inclined to the Iranian city of Shiraz (hence the name), others to Syracuse in Italy. There are other versions. In France, Syrah is a variety of the northern part of the Rhone Valley. This variety ripens early and produces very spicy, rich wines. By the way, both the names Syrah and Shiraz are common. The first is used in the Old World, and the second in the New World. So excellent wines from Shiraz are made in Australia, South Africa, California, New Zealand, Chile and Argentina.


It is probably the most famous Spanish variety. It was glorified by the Spanish region of Rioja, one of the most prestigious on the Iberian Peninsula. Tempranillo matures quite quickly. By the way, its name is translated from Spanish as “early”. Tempranillo gives structure, saturation, astringency to its wines. Aromas of berries mixed with the smell of leather and tobacco.


The most famous wines from this variety are produced in Argentina (especially Mendoza). But the birthplace of Malbec is the south-west of France, the Cahors region. These are rich, tart, full-bodied wines with the aromas of cherries, notes of chocolate and spices.

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Champagne Rose by Angelina Jolie and Brad Pitt

Rose Champagne

Champagne Rose by Angelina Jolie and Brad Pitt

After the production of rosé under the Miraval brand in The French department of Var, Angelina Jolie and Brad Pitt launch rose production in Champagne.



It will be the only champagne house that specializes exclusively in rose production. The volume will also be extremely exclusive. They will start with 10,000 bottles, and do not plan to expand to more than 25,000 bottles per year.

Champagne is a sparkling wine produced in the French Champagne region by the method of secondary fermentation in a bottle.

Emphasis will be placed on product quality.

It turns out that professionals have been working on the project for 3-4 years, but only now they officially announced its launch. The production is carried out together with the Peters family, which owns the family house of champagne wines since 1858.

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